So, I didn’t actually mean to post that previous post, I had intended to think more on the idea. But oh well, cat’s out of the bag. In any case, I’ve been thinking about the “closures” vs “procedures” idea that I jotted down there and decided to try and elaborate on it a bit more, since I find it has a lot of appeal. In particular I think that the current collection of closure types is addressing too many distinct use cases and the result is confusing.

UPDATE 2013.05.14 10:30am: Edited to tweak various errors and to add some variations at the end that I prefer.

Today: by-reference vs copying closures

Today we offer three different kinds of closures (&fn, @fn, and ~fn), but these closures can really be divided into two basic categories: by-reference and copying closures. A by-reference closure is the usual kind: it is allocated on the stack and has full access to the variables in the creating stack frame. It can read them, write them, and borrow them. These are used with for loops and the like.

Copying closures, on the other hand, are somewhat different. They are not tied to any particular stack frame. Instead, they copy the current values of the variables which they close over into their environment (like all the default Rust copies, this is a shallow copy, so if the value being closed over contains ~ pointers, it will no longer be accessible from the creator). These closures are used primarily as task bodies and for futures. There are some scattered uses of @fn closures in the compiler but as far as I can tell they are all legacy code that should eventually be purged and rewritten to use traits (i.e., the visitor, the AST folder).

Loosely speaking, a &fn closure is by-reference and @fn and ~fn closures are copying closures. But this is not strictly true. In fact, an the &fn type can be either a by-reference closure or a copying closure, because you are permitted to borrow a @fn or ~fn to a &fn. So the type in isolation does not tell you whether a closure is by-reference or not. In fact, there is no explicit indication at all—instead, when you create a closure today (i.e., with a |x, y| ...) expression, the compiler infers based on the expected types whether this should be a by-reference closure or a copying closure. Because the semantics of these two vary greatly, I find this potentially quite confusing and unfortunate.

Tomorrow (perhaps): closures and procedures

In general, I would prefer to draw a starker line between copying and by-reference closures. I propose to use the term closure to refer only to by-reference, stack-allocated closures. We could then use another term, perhaps procedure, to refer to the copying closures. This would mean that our type hierarchy would look like:

T = S               // sized types
  | U               // unsized types
S = fn(S*) -> S     // closures (*)
  | &'r T           // region ptr
  | @T              // managed ptr
  | ~T              // unique ptr
  | [S, ..N]        // fixed-length array
  | uint            // scalars
  | ...
U = [S]             // vectors
  | str             // string
  | Trait           // existential ("exists S:Trait.S")
  | proc(S*) -> S   // procedures (*)

This chart is basically the same as the one you will find in the dynamically sized types post from before with one crucial difference: closure types have been split from procedures, and closure types have moved into the category of sized types, meaning that you no longer write an explicit sigil when you use one. This is because the representation of a closure would always be a pair of a borrowed pointer into the stack and a function pointer: the type has a fixed size (two words) and requires no memory allocation.

I have chosen to leave procedures as unsized, since a procedure must allocate memory on the heap, and this allows the user to select which heap is used; in earlier drafts of this idea, I had modified procedures to implicit use the exchange heap, meaning that a type like proc() always represented an exchange heap allocation. But I think it’s more consistent to have that type be written ~proc, and it maintains the general Rust invariant “you don’t have allocation unless you see a sigil”.

UPDATE: bstrie on IRC asked about fn items, which never have any environment. As today, these would continue to be coercable to either a closure or a procedure.

Closure and procedure expressions

Closures would still be created with the form |x, y| expr. Procedures would be created using the keyword proc: proc(x, y) expr. If desired, we could integrate procedures into do using some syntax like one of the following, depending on whether we wish to make the sigil explicit:

do spawn proc { ... }   // sigil inferred

do spawn ~proc { ... }  // sigil explicit

Closure and procedure types in more detail

The full function or procedure type would look something like this ([] indicates optional content):

 [once] (fn|proc) [:['r] [Bounds]] <'a...> (S*) -> S
 ^~~~~^           ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~^ ^~~~~~^ ^~~^    ^
   |                     |            |     |      |
   |                     |            |     |  Return type
   |                     |            |    Argument types
   |                     |          Bound lifetime names
   |               Lifetime and trait bounds

Here the “onceness” indicates whether the closure/procedure can be called more than once. The “lifetime and trait bounds” indicate constraints on the environment. The lifetime bound 'r indicates the minimum lifetime of the variables that the closure/procedure closes over, and the “bounds” (if any) would give bounds on the types of those variables. Finally, you have the argument and return types.

If omitted, the default bounds for a closure would be a fresh lifetime and no type bounds. The default bounds for a procedure would be the static lifetime and Owned.

Use cases

Let’s look briefly at the use cases I listed before.

Higher-order and once functions

Typical uses for higher-order and once functions look much the same as before, but minus a sigil.

impl<T:Sized> for [T] {
    pub fn map<U:Sized>(f: fn(&T) -> U) -> ~[U] { ... }
                        // ^~~~~~~~~~~

impl<T:Sized> for Option<T> {
    // `each` on an option type can only execute at most once:
    pub fn each(f: once fn(&T) -> bool) -> bool { ... }
                // ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

For contrast, these are &fn(&T) -> U and &once fn(&T) -> bool today.

Sendable functions and sendable once functions

Here is an example of a sendable once function:

fn spawn(f: ~once proc()) {...}
         // ^~~~~~~~~~

As we saw before, one would write one of the following to call this function:

do spawn proc { ... }
spawn(proc { ... })

Creating a future would look like future(proc expr) (vs future(|| expr) today).

Const closures

One could still use const closures to achieve lightweight parallelism:

impl<T:Sized> for [T] {
    pub fn par_map<U:Sized>(f: fn:Const(&T) -> U) -> bool { ... }
                            // ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

However, I have been thinking that we’ll have to be careful here, we need some way to guarantee that the closure does not move from its environment and then replace the moved value. Today this is illegal, but if we can prevent closures from recursing (which we must do anyhow) then we could make such moves legal, and it would be useful sometimes. On simple solution is to stay that if the closure type has a Const bound, moves are illegal, but it’s a bit…ad-hoc, since the bounds are only supposed to be constraining the types of the variables that are closed over. Still, it might be good enough.

Sendable const functions and combinators

As I argued before, I think these are not important use cases, but with procedures they actually work out fine (though not with variations 2 and 3 below). A sendable const function can be expressed with the type ~proc:Owned+Const(), which is complex, but then it is a complex idea. Combinator types would likely look like @proc or @proc:'r, in the case where the combinator closes over borrowed data.

Variation #1: Leaving procedures out of the core language

In fact, I think proc types need not be built into the language, you could model them with traits, though you’d probably want a macro like proc!(...) for defining the proc body. This would also mean the procedures can’t be used with do form.

Variation #2: Limit procedures to execute once

I don’t know of any (good) uses cases for non-once procedures. I think they should just always be once. This would mean that the only closure types that are commonly needed would be:

  1. fn(T) – normal higher-order functions
  2. once fn(T) – higher-order functions that execute at most once
  3. ~proc(T) – procedures

Because procedures can always be desugared into a struct and a trait, this would not lose no expressiveness.

Variation #3: Limit procedures to execute once and use exchange heap

For maximum streamlining, we could make proc implicitly use ~, in which case it would be written:

  1. fn(T) – normal higher-order functions
  2. once fn(T) – higher-order functions that execute at most once
  3. proc(T) – procedures

These types read pretty well, I think.


I have long been unsatisfied with the implicit and confusing divide between “by reference” and “copying” closures. Splitting them into two concepts seems to address a lot of issues and be an overall win to me.