I’ve been thinking more about my proposal to split the current fn type into fn and proc. I have come to the conclusion that we just don’t need proc at all. I think we can get by with two types:

  1. fn(S) -> T: closures that always reference an enclosing scope
  2. extern "ABI" fn(S) -> t: raw function pointer, no environment

Code that uses @fn or ~fn today could be rewritten to either use a boxed trait or to use a pair of a user-data struct and an extern fn.

Today the two main consumers of such functions that I could find in the standard library are task spawning and futures, so I will look at those; rustc also makes heavy use of @fn within the visitor and AST folding cold, but those are legacy uses that would be better written with traits.

Task spawning

Right now to spawn a task one writes some code like the following:

let vec = ~[1, 2, 3];
let (port, chan) = stream();
do spawn {
    chan.send(vec.clone()); // (*)
let v = port.recv();
// v == ~[1, 2, 3, 4]

This code creates a vector and a port/channel pair. A task is then spawned which takes ownership of vec and chan (implicitly, because it references them; as I argued before, I find this potentially confusing). This task then pushes the result of computation() onto the vector and sends the vector back.

Interestingly, it has to send back a clone of the vector, even though it doesn’t need the vector anymore. The reason for this is because spawn is defined as taking a general ~fn closure:

fn spawn(body: ~fn());

This closure, body, defines the task body. We know that the closure will be invoked at most once, but the type system doesn’t. Therefore, it will not permit vec to be moved out of the environment, for fear that body will be re-invoked and then try to use this vector again.

Under my proposal, we would modify this definition to be as follows:

fn spawn<T:Send>(arg: T, body: extern fn(T));

The idea is that spawn will invoke body with arg as argument. You could then rewrite the previous example as follows:

let vec = ~[1, 2, 3];
let (port, chan) = stream();
do spawn((vec, chan)) |(vec, chan)| {
    chan.send(vec); // (*)
let v = port.recv();

Here I am assuming that we extend the || syntax to allow it to be used to define raw functions with no environment, which is something that has already been requested for other reasons and which I plan to do.

What this code does, then, is to “capture” vec and chan by moving them into a tuple and passing that tuple to spawn as an argument. The task body then unpacks the tuple. This pattern is very general, but not very DRY of course, since we must repeat the names of the variables. One nice aspect, from my point of view, is that by enumerating the things you capture, you make clear what is being moved into the closure and what is not.

Another benefit is that we are able to move the vector vec out of the task body (see the line marked (*)—no call to clone). The reason that this works is that there is no implicit environment. It is of course possible to reinvoke the task body, but the caller would have to supply a fresh (vec, chan) tuple, so there would be no access to uninitialized memory.

Macros to the rescue

One obvious way to solve the DRY problem is to encapsulate spawn in a macro. So, if you write something like (strawman):

spawn!(a, b, c => 

It would expand to the tuple passing code I showed earlier. Clearly here a more flexible macro invocation syntax might be desirable, in that it’d be nice to use braces not parentheses.

It turns out, in fact, that we wanted to convert calls to spawn into macros anyway, so that we could easily trace the filename / line-number information of the task, which makes debugging much easier.

Futures, incidentally, could work in a similar fashion:

let task = future!(a, b, c => process(a, b, c))

But wait, there’s more

It may seem surprising that we could do away with closures so easily. In fact, there is one important difference between the two versions of spawn I showed you, besides whether they take a function/closure:

fn spawn(body: ~fn());                        // Today
fn spawn<A:Send>(arg: A, body: extern fn(A)); // Tomorrow?

Namely, the spawn of today is not generic: the argument to the closure is hidden, in the environment. This means that you only need to generate one copy of spawn, whereas we would need to generate one copy of the proposed spawn for every different kind of argument that a task may expect.

As I’ve mentioned a few times, object types can provide the same sort of existential encapsulation that closures provide. If we were to recast the spawn and future function using objects, they might look like:

fn spawn(body: ~Task:Send<()>);
fn future<R>(body: ~Task:Send<R>) -> Future<R>;

where the trait Task is defined as follows:

trait Task<R> {
    // Consumes the receiver, and hence it can only be invoked once.
    fn run(self) -> R;
    // Add these metadata functions for good measure.
    fn filename(&self) -> &'static str;
    fn line_number(&self) -> uint;
    fn column(&self) -> uint;

If we took this approach, we could just define a macro task! that closed over a set of variables. In that case, spawn and future could be regular functions again, and we could invoke them as follows:

spawn(task!(a, b, c => ...))
future(task!(a, b => ...))

What would this macro expand to? First, I imagine that we’d have a generic implementation in the standard library, looking something like:

struct TaskStruct<A, R> {
    argument: A,
    func: extern fn(A) -> R,
    filename: &'static str,
    line_number: uint,
    column: uint

impl<A, R> Task<R> for TaskStruct<A, R> {
    fn run(self) -> R {
        let TaskStruct {argument, func, _} = self;
    fn filename(&self) -> &'static str {
    fn line_number(&self) -> uint {

    fn column(&self) -> uint {

Now the task!(a...z => ...) macro can expand to the following expression:

~TaskStruct {argument: (a...z),
             func: |(a...z)| { ... },
             filename: "some_file.rs",
             line_number: 22,
             column: 44}

When this expression is used in argument position, it can be converted into an ~Task<R> object using the standard coercion rules . This same pattern can be extended to other kinds of “capturing functions” that we might want.

Further simplification

If we adopt this trick, I think we can probably just remove the idea of once fns. The main use of those was task bodies and futures, which are basically solved by the two ideas above. There are other use cases, but they are rare and I think it’s acceptable to rewrite them using a fn that takes arguments. Here is an example:

fn do_once<A, R>(arg: A, op: fn(A) -> R) { op(arg) }

fn something() {
    let mut borrowed = ~[1, 2, 3];
    let moved = ~[1, 2, 3];
    do do_once(moved) |moved| {
        borrowed.push(1, 2, 3);

Why keep closures at all?

I think it’s worth keeping fn closures that implicitly borrow their environment. They are basically sugar for a trait whose fields are & and &mut borrowed pointers, but it is a very sweet sugar that we build on all over the place. All of our control structures, after all, are built on closures. Plus, it avoids the need to give “capture clauses” for this common case.

Where does that leave us?

If we adopted this proposal then the menagerie of function types has become quite tamed. In practice, the two types I imagine one would see commonly are:

  • Closures like fn(T) -> U
  • Sendable task bodies like ~Task:Send

More advanced use cases, such as the data parallelism API I am planning and also brson’s work on the scheduler, will expect closures with bounds on their arguments:

  • fn:Share(T) -> U, indicating a closure that only closes over “shareable” things (roughly speaking, that is the same as Freeze, but not quite; I’ll discuss this idea more in a future post)
  • fn:Send(T) -> U, indicating a closure that only closes over sendable things

The full type scheme would be as follows ([] denotes something optional, * denotes repeating):

  fn [:K] (T*) -> T
    where K  = K0 [(+ K0)*]
          K0 = 'lifetime
             | Trait (must be a built-in trait, like Freeze, Shared, Send)

Function pointers:
  extern ["ABI"] fn(T*) -> T
    where ABI defaults to "Rust" if unspecified.

As an alternative to the extern fn syntax, I would personally prefer something like fnptr, but I’m not sure where the ABI goes then. I also considered fn:"ABI", but that makes the ABI mandatory, and it kind of looks ugly. So I think I like extern fn, even though it is a bit odd since it is in fact the type of all fn items, not only external functions.

Hat tip

I want to tip my hat to bblum and the various IRC commentators, who forced me to think about this issue a bit more. I don’t know if they will like this proposal, but I like it more than what I had.