In today’s Rust, there are a number of builtin traits (sometimes called “kinds”): Send, Freeze, Share, and Pod (in the future, perhaps Sized). These are expressed as traits, but they are quite unlike other traits in certain ways. One way is that they do not have any methods; instead, implementing a trait like Freeze indicates that the type has certain properties (defined below). The biggest difference, though, is that these traits are not implemented manually by users. Instead, the compiler decides automatically whether or not a type implements them based on the contents of the type.

In this proposal, I argue to change this system and instead have users manually implement the builtin traits for new types that they define. Naturally there would be #[deriving] options as well for convenience. The compiler’s rules (e.g., that a sendable value cannot reach a non-sendable value) would still be enforced, but at the point where a builtin trait is explicitly implemented, rather than being automatically deduced.

There are a couple of reasons to make this change:

  1. Consistency. All other traits are opt-in, including very common traits like Eq and Clone. It is somewhat surprising that the builtin traits act differently.
  2. API Stability. The builtin traits that are implemented by a type are really part of its public API, but unlike other similar things they are not declared. This means that seemingly innocent changes to the definition of a type can easily break downstream users. For example, imagine a type that changes from POD to non-POD – suddenly, all references to instances of that type go from copies to moves. Similarly, a type that goes from sendable to non-sendable can no longer be used as a message. By opting in to being POD (or sendable, etc), library authors make explicit what properties they expect to maintain, and which they do not.
  3. Pedagogy. Many users find the distinction between pod types (which copy) and linear types (which move) to be surprising. Making pod-ness opt-in would help to ease this confusion.
  4. Safety and correctness. In the presence of unsafe code, compiler inference is unsound, and it is unfortunate that users must remember to “opt out” from inapplicable kinds. There are also concerns about future compatibility. Even in safe code, it can also be useful to impose additional usage constriants beyond those strictly required for type soundness.

I will first cover the existing builtin traits and define what they are used for. I will then explain each of the above reasons in more detail. Finally, I’ll give some syntax examples.

The builtin traits

We currently define the following builtin traits:

  • Send – a type that deeply owns all its contents. (Examples: int, ~int, not &int)
  • Freeze – a type which is deeply immutable when accessed via an &T reference. (Examples: int, ~int, &int, &mut int, not Cell<int> or Atomic<int>)
  • Pod – “plain old data” which can be safely copied via memcpy. (Examples: int, &int, not ~int or &mut int)

We are in the process of adding an additional trait:

  • Share – a type which is threadsafe when accessed via an &T reference. (Examples: int, ~int, &int, &mut int, Atomic<int>, not Cell<int>)

Proposed syntax

Under this proposal, for a struct or enum to be considered send, freeze, pod, etc, those traits must be explicitly implemented:

struct Foo { ... }
impl Send for Foo { }
impl Freeze for Foo { }
impl Pod for Foo { }
impl Share for Foo { }

For generic types, a conditional impl would be more appropriate:

enum Option<T> { Some(T), None }
impl<T:Send> Send for Option<T> { }
// etc

As usual, deriving forms would be available that would expand into impls like the one shown above.

Whenever a builtin trait is implemented, the compiler will enforce the same requirements it enforces today. Therefore, code like the following would yield an error:

struct Foo<'a> { x: &'a int }

// ERROR: Cannot implement `Send` because the field `x` has type
// `&'a int` which is not sendable.
impl<'a> Send for Foo<'a> { }

These impls would follow the usual coherence requirements. For example, a struct can only be declared as Share within the crate where it is defined.

For convenience, I also propose a deriving shorthand #[deriving(Data)] that would implement a “package” of common traits for types that contain simple data: Eq, Ord, Clone, Show, Send, Share, Freeze, and Pod.

Pod and linearity

One of the most important aspects of this proposal is that the Pod trait would be something that one “opts in” to. This means that structs and enums would move by default unless their type is explicitly declared to be Pod. So, for example, the following code would be in error:

struct Point { x: int, y: int }
let p = Point { x: 1, y: 2 };
let q = p;  // moves p
print(p.x); // ERROR

To allow that example, one would have to impl Pod for Point:

struct Point { x: int, y: int }
impl Pod for Point { }
let p = Point { x: 1, y: 2 };
let q = p;  // copies p, because Point is Pod
print(p.x); // OK

Effectively this change introduces a three step ladder for types:

  1. If you do nothing, your type is linear, meaning that it moves from place to place and can never be copied in any way. (We need a better name for that.)
  2. If you implement Clone, your type is cloneable, meaning that it moves from place to place, but it can be explicitly cloned. This is suitable for cases where copying is expensive.
  3. If you implement Pod, your type is plain old data, meaning that it is just copied by default without the need for an explicit clone. This is suitable for small bits of data like ints or points.

What is nice about this change is that when a type is defined, the user makes an explicit choice between these three options.


This change would bring the builtin traits more in line with other common traits, such as Eq and Clone. On a historical note, this proposal continues a trend, in that both of those operations used to be natively implemented by the compiler as well.

API Stability

The set of builtin traits implemented by a type must be considered part of its public inferface. At present, though, it’s quite invisible and not under user control. If a type is changed from Pod to non-pod, or Send to non-send, no error message will result until client code attempts to use an instance of that type. In general we have tried to avoid this sort of situation, and instead have each declaration contain enough information to check it indepenently of its uses. Issue #12202 describes this same concern, specifically with respect to stability attributes.

Making opt-in explicit effectively solves this problem. It is clearly written out which traits a type is expected to fulfill, and if the type is changed in such a way as to violate one of these traits, an error will be reported at the impl site (or #[deriving] declaration).


When users first start with Rust, ownership and ownership transfer is one of the first things that they must learn. This is made more confusing by the fact that types are automatically divided into pod and non-pod without any sort of declaration. It is not necessarily obvious why a T and ~T value, which are semantically equivalent, behave so differently by default. Makes the pod category something you opt into means that types will all be linear by default, which can make teaching and leaning easier.

Safety and correctness: unsafe code

For safe code, the compiler’s rules for deciding whether or not a type is sendable (and so forth) are perfectly sound. However, when unsafe code is involved, the compiler may draw the wrong conclusion. For such cases, types must opt out of the builtin traits.

In general, the opt out approach seems to be hard to reason about: many people (including myself) find it easier to think about what properties a type has than what properties it does not have, though clearly the two are logically equivalent in this binary world we programmer’s inhabit.

More concretely, opt out is dangerous because it means that types with unsafe methods are generally wrong by default. As an example, consider the definition of the Cell type:

struct Cell<T> {
    priv value: T

This is a perfectly ordinary struct, and hence the compiler would conclude that cells are freezable (if T is freezable) and so forth. However, the methods attached to Cell use unsafe magic to mutate value, even when the Cell is aliased:

impl<T:Pod> Cell<T> {
    pub fn set(&self, value: T) {
        unsafe {
            *cast::transmute_mut(&self.value) = value

To accommodate this, we currently use marker types – special types known to the compiler which are considered nonpod and so forth. Therefore, the full definition of Cell is in fact:

pub struct Cell<T> {
    priv value: T,
    priv marker1: marker::InvariantType<T>,
    priv marker2: marker::NoFreeze,

Note the two markers. The first, marker1, is a hint to the variance engine indicating that the type Cell must be invariant with respect to its type argument. The second, marker2, indicates that Cell is non-freeze. This then informs the compiler that the referent of a &Cell<T> can’t be considered immutable. The problem here is that, if you don’t know to opt-out, you’ll wind up with a type definition that is unsafe.

This argument is rather weakened by the continued necessity of a marker::InvariantType marker. This could be read as an argument towards explicit variance. However, I think that in this particular case, the better solution is to introduce the Mut<T> type described in #12577 – the Mut<T> type would give us the invariance.

Using Mut<T> brings us back to a world where any type that uses Mut<T> to obtain interior mutability is correct by default, at least with respect to the builtin kinds. Types like Atomic<T> and Volatile<T>, which guarantee data race freedom, would therefore have to opt in to the Share kind, and types like Cell<T> would simply do nothing.

Safety and correctness: future compatibility

Another concern about having the compiler automatically infer membership into builtin bounds is that we may find cause to add new bounds in the future. In that case, existing Rust code which uses unsafe methods might be inferred incorrectly, because it would not know to opt out of those future bounds. Therefore, any future bounds will have to be opt out anyway, so perhaps it is best to be consistent from the start.

Safety and correctness: semantic constraints

Even if type safety is maintained, some types ought not to be copied for semantic reasons. An example from the compiler is the Datum<Rvalue> type, which is used in code generation to represent the computed result of an rvalue expression. At present, the type Rvalue implements a (empty) destructor – the sole purpose of this destructor is to ensure that datums are not consumed more than once, because this would likely correspond to a code gen bug, as it would mean that the result of the expression evaluation is consumed more than once. Another example might be a newtype’d integer used for indexing into a thread-local array: such a value ought not to be sendable. And so forth. Using marker types for these kinds of situations, or empty destructors, is very awkward. Under this proposal, users needs merely refrain from implementing the relevant traits.

The Sized bound

In DST, we plan to add a Sized bound. I do not feel like users should manually implemented Sized. It seems tedious and rather ludicrous.


The downsides of this proposal are:

  • There is some annotation burden. I had intended to gather statistics to try and measure this but have not had the time.

  • If a library forgets to implement all the relevant traits for a type, there is little recourse for users of that library beyond pull requests to the original repository. This is already true with traits like Eq and Ord. However, as SiegeLord noted on IRC, that you can often work around the absence of Eq with a newtype wrapper, but this is not true if a type fails to implement Send or Pod. This danger (forgetting to implement traits) is essentially the counterbalance to the “forward compatbility” case made above: where implementing traits by default means types may implement too much, forcing explicit opt in means types may implement too little. One way to mitigate this problem would be to have a lint for when an impl of some kind (etc) would be legal, but isn’t implemented, at least for publicly exported types in library crates.