This post withdrawn: it was posted by accident and was incomplete.

| &mut | —-> | int | +—+ +——+ +—–+ ^ +—+ | | & | ———+ +—+

As you can see from the diagram, the &mut reference is a unique reference to the integer. That is, it can’t be copied, and it’s the only direct pointer to that integer. However, there are multiple paths to the &mut itself. That’s not the fault of the &mut, it’s just that uniqueness is a global property. In other words, if I have a variable p of type &&mut int, then **p is not a unique path, even though it traverses through a unique reference at some point.

Note: the existence of types like &&mut int may seem like a wart on the type system. It is not. It is in fact a very useful pattern, as I’ll explain below.

On mutability

It’s also important to emphasize that under no proposal are mutability and uniqueness precisely conflated. There will always be a connection (“aliasing, mutability, and safety, pick two”) and hence the two cannot be completely orthogonal.

In my proposal, the story would not be “a unique reference is required to mutate”. Rather, it is better to say: “a unique reference is one way to mutate, the other is Cell”. This is (naturally) the same as today, the only real difference is that we don’t write &mut (mutable reference) but rather just talk about uniqueness.

Static variables

I neglected to mention how we should treat static variables. To be honest, I hadn’t thought about them much at all, but I don’t think there is any significant complication there. My preferred approach would be to remove static mut variables and instead rely on the existing types for mutating alias state (Atomic, Cell etc). There is a slight twist, though, in that static variables are always accessible to multiple threads.

My preferred solution would be to say that static variables can be declared as unsafe, in which case it is illegal to access them outside of an unsafe block. Moreover, any static variable that (a) contains an Unsafe<T> instance and (b) is not Share must be declared unsafe. The idea here is that Unsafe<T> is the marker we use to signal “mutability even when aliased” and Share is the way we distinguish types whose APIs guarantee thread-safety. So it’s unsafe to stick non-thread-safe, inherently mutable data into a static, since we can’t prevent you from accessing it from multiple threads.

As an aside, the name Share for the threadsafe trait doesn’t work so well with my intention to call &T a “shared reference”. Perhaps Share would be better called Threadsafe. Not sure.

On composition

Here is a brief example to explain why a type like &&mut int is not an anti-pattern, but rather something that arises naturally. The high-level bit is that, when it comes to mutability, &mut T behaves in basically the same way as T itself. (The differences between arise when it comes to moving, or freeing: you can move (or free) a T, but you can’t move the referent of an &mut T reference, because you don’t own it.)

Here is an example that relies on the aliasing of &&mut T. Imagine I want to have a type FilterMap that imposes a filter onto another map, screening out certain keys from being inserted. For fun, let’s say we don’t want even integers in the map for some reason. I can now write a type like this:

struct FilterMap<'a, V> {
    map: &'a mut HashMap<int, V>

Now I can implement insert like so:

impl<'a, V> FilterMap<'a, V> {
    fn insert(&mut self, key: int, value: V) {
        if (key & 1) != 0 { // key is odd
            // Introducing a temporary for explanatory purposes:
            let map = &mut;
            map.insert(key, value);

Here to do the insertion I create a temporary called map. This will have the type &mut &mut HashMap<int, V>. Because every step along this way is a mutable reference, I wind up with a unique, mutable path to the HashMap I am delegating to. Great.

Now suppose I wanted to implement find. The trick with find is that it will return a pointer into the map itself, so it must ensure that the map is not mutated until that pointer goes out of scope. We normally do this by having a signature like this:

fn find<'a>(&'a self, key: int) -> Option<&'a V>

Here you can see that the input is a shared reference with lifetime 'a. Basically this means that the map is aliased

impl<'a, V> FilterMap<'a, V> {
    fn find<'a>(&'a self, key: int) -> Option<&'a V> {
        // Introducing a temporary for explanatory purposes:
        let map = &;

Here the temporary map has type &'a &mut HashMap<int, V>. In other words, I have a shared reference to the mutable reference. This implies that the HashMap itself is aliased for the lifetime 'a (i.e., so long as this shared reference exists). This in turn implies that the HashMap is immutable, and hence we can call find as normal.